National Curriculum KS1 Y2

By the beginning of year 2, pupils should be able to read all common graphemes. They should be able to read unfamiliar words containing these graphemes, accurately and without undue hesitation, by sounding them out in books that are matched closely to each pupil’s level of word reading knowledge. They should also be able to read many common words containing GPCs taught so far [for example, shout, hand, stop, or dream], without needing to blend the sounds out loud first. Pupils’ reading of common exception words [for example, you, could, many, or people], should be secure. Pupils will increase their fluency by being able to read these words easily and automatically. Finally, pupils should be able to retell some familiar stories that have been read to and discussed with them or that they have acted out during year 1.

During year 2, teachers should continue to focus on establishing pupils’ accurate and speedy word reading skills. They should also make sure that pupils listen to and discuss a wide range of stories, poems, plays and information books; this should include whole books. The sooner that pupils can read well and do so frequently, the sooner they will be able to increase their vocabulary, comprehension and their knowledge across the wider curriculum.

In writing, pupils at the beginning of year 2 should be able to compose individual sentences orally and then write them down. They should be able to spell correctly many of the words covered in year 1 (see English Appendix 1 [below]). They should also be able to make phonically plausible attempts to spell words they have not yet learnt. Finally, they should be able to form individual letters correctly, so establishing good handwriting habits from the beginning.

It is important to recognise that pupils begin to meet extra challenges in terms of spelling during year 2. Increasingly, they should learn that there is not always an obvious connection between the way a word is said and the way it is spelt. Variations include different ways of spelling the same sound, the use of so-called silent letters and groups of letters in some words and, sometimes, spelling that has become separated from the way that words are now pronounced, such as the ‘le’ ending in table. Pupils’ motor skills also need to be sufficiently advanced for them to write down ideas that they may be able to compose orally. In addition, writing is intrinsically harder than reading: pupils are likely to be able to read and understand more complex writing (in terms of its vocabulary and structure) than they are capable of producing themselves.

For pupils who do not have the phonic knowledge and skills they need for year 2, teachers should use the year 1 programmes of study for word reading and spelling so that pupils’ word reading skills catch up. However, teachers should use the year 2 programme of study for comprehension so that these pupils hear and talk about new books, poems, other writing, and vocabulary with the rest of the class.

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National Curriculum KS1 Y2: Word Reading

Statutory requirements

Pupils should be taught to:

Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils should revise and consolidate the GPCs and the common exception words taught in year 1. The exception words taught will vary slightly, depending on the phonics programme being used. As soon as pupils can read words comprising the year 2 GPCs accurately and speedily, they should move on to the years 3 and 4 programme of study for word reading.

When pupils are taught how to read longer words, they should be shown syllable boundaries and how to read each syllable separately before they combine them to read the word.

Pupils should be taught how to read suffixes by building on the root words that they have already learnt. The whole suffix should be taught as well as the letters that make it up.

Pupils who are still at the early stages of learning to read should have ample practice in reading books that are closely matched to their developing phonic knowledge and knowledge of common exception words. As soon as the decoding of most regular words and common exception words is embedded fully, the range of books that pupils can read independently will expand rapidly. Pupils should have opportunities to exercise choice in selecting books and be taught how to do so.

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National Curriculum KS1 Y2: Reading Comprehension

Statutory requirements

Pupils should be taught to:

Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils should be encouraged to read all the words in a sentence and to do this accurately, so that their understanding of what they read is not hindered by imprecise decoding (for example, by reading ‘place’ instead of ‘palace’).

Pupils should monitor what they read, checking that the word they have decoded fits in with what else they have read and makes sense in the context of what they already know about the topic.

The meaning of new words should be explained to pupils within the context of what they are reading, and they should be encouraged to use morphology (such as prefixes) to work out unknown words.

Pupils should learn about cause and effect in both narrative and non-fiction (for example, what has prompted a character’s behaviour in a story; why certain dates are commemorated annually). ‘Thinking aloud’ when reading to pupils may help them to understand what skilled readers do.

Deliberate steps should be taken to increase pupils’ vocabulary and their awareness of grammar so that they continue to understand the differences between spoken and written language.

Discussion should be demonstrated to pupils. They should be guided to participate in it and they should be helped to consider the opinions of others. They should receive feedback on their discussions.

Role-play and other drama techniques can help pupils to identify with and explore characters. In these ways, they extend their understanding of what they read and have opportunities to try out the language they have listened to.

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National Curriculum KS1 Y2: Spelling

Statutory requirements

Spelling (see English Appendix 1 [see the table below on this page])

Pupils should be taught to:

Statutory requirements Rules and guidance (non-statutory) Example words (non-statutory)
The /dʒ/ sound spelt as ge and dge at the end of words, and sometimes spelt as g elsewhere in words before e, i and y The letter j is never used for the /dʒ/ sound at the end of English words. At the end of a word, the /dʒ/ sound is spelt –dge straight after the /æ/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ɒ/, /ʌ/ and /ʊ/ sounds (sometimes called ‘short’ vowels). After all other sounds, whether vowels or consonants, the /dʒ/ sound is spelt as –ge at the end of a word. In other positions in words, the /dʒ/ sound is often (but not always) spelt as g before e, i and y. The /dʒ/ sound is always spelt as j before a, o and u. badge, edge, bridge, dodge, fudge age, huge, change, charge, bulge, village, gem, giant, magic, giraffe, energy, jacket, jar, jog, join, adjust
The /s/ sound spelt c before e, i and y race, ice, cell, city, fancy
The /n/ sound spelt kn and (less often) gn at the beginning of words The ‘k’ and ‘g’ at the beginning of these words was sounded hundreds of years ago. knock, know, knee, gnat, gnaw
The /r/ sound spelt wr at the beginning of words This spelling probably also reflects an old pronunciation. write, written, wrote, wrong, wrap
The /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt –le at the end of words The –le spelling is the most common spelling for this sound at the end of words. table, apple, bottle, little, middle
The /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt –el at the end of words The –el spelling is much less common than –le. The –el spelling is used after m, n, r, s, v, w and more often than not after s. camel, tunnel, squirrel, travel, towel, tinsel
The /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt –al at the end of words Not many nouns end in –al, but many adjectives do. metal, pedal, capital, hospital, animal
Words ending –il There are not many of these words. pencil, fossil, nostril
The /aɪ/ sound spelt –y at the end of words This is by far the most common spelling for this sound at the end of words. cry, fly, dry, try, reply, July
Adding –es to nouns and verbs ending in –y The y is changed to i before –es is added. flies, tries, replies, copies, babies, carries
Adding –ed, –ing, –er and –est to a root word ending in –y with a consonant before it The y is changed to i before –ed, –er and –est are added, but not before –ing as this would result in ii. The only ordinary words with ii are skiing and taxiing. copied, copier, happier, happiest, cried, replied …but copying, crying, replying
Adding the endings –ing, –ed, –er, –est and –y to words ending in –e with a consonant before it The –e at the end of the root word is dropped before –ing, –ed, –er, –est, –y or any other suffix beginning with a vowel letter is added. Exception: being. hiking, hiked, hiker, nicer, nicest, shiny
Adding –ing, –ed, –er, –est and –y to words of one syllable ending in a single consonant letter after a single vowel letter The last consonant letter of the root word is doubled to keep the /æ/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ɒ/ and /ʌ/ sound (i.e. to keep the vowel ‘short’). Exception: The letter ‘x’ is never doubled: mixing, mixed, boxer, sixes. patting, patted, humming, hummed, dropping, dropped, sadder, saddest, fatter, fattest, runner, runny
The /ɔ:/ sound spelt a before l and ll The /ɔ:/ sound (‘or’) is usually spelt as a before l and ll. all, ball, call, walk, talk, always
The /ʌ/ sound spelt o   other, mother, brother, nothing, Monday
The /i:/ sound spelt –ey The plural of these words is formed by the addition of –s (donkeys, monkeys, etc.). key, donkey, monkey, chimney, valley
The /ɒ/ sound spelt a after w and qu a is the most common spelling for the /ɒ/ (‘hot’) sound after w and qu. want, watch, wander, quantity, squash
The /ɜ:/ sound spelt or after w There are not many of these words. word, work, worm, world, worth
The /ɔ:/ sound spelt ar after w There are not many of these words. war, warm, towards
The /ʒ/ sound spelt s television, treasure, usual
The suffixes –ment, –ness, –ful , –less and –ly If a suffix starts with a consonant letter, it is added straight on to most root words without any change to the last letter of those words. Exceptions: (1) argument (2) root words ending in –y with a consonant before it but only if the root word has more than one syllable. enjoyment, sadness, careful, playful, hopeless, plainness (plain + ness), badly, merriment, happiness, plentiful, penniless, happily
Contractions In contractions, the apostrophe shows where a letter or letters would be if the words were written in full (e.g. can’t – cannot). It’s means it is (e.g. It’s raining) or sometimes it has (e.g. It’s been raining), but it’s is never used for the possessive. can’t, didn’t, hasn’t, couldn’t, it’s, I’ll
The possessive apostrophe (singular nouns)   Megan’s, Ravi’s, the girl’s, the child’s, the man’s
Words ending in tion   station, fiction, motion, national, section
Homophones and near-homophones It is important to know the difference in meaning between homophones. there/their/they’re, here/hear, quite/quiet, see/sea, bare/bear, one/won, sun/son, to/too/two, be/bee, blue/blew, night/knight
Common exception words Some words are exceptions in some accents but not in others – e.g. past, last, fast, path and bath are not exceptions in accents where the a in these words is pronounced /æ/, as in cat. Great, break and steak are the only common words where the /eɪ/ sound is spelt ea. door, floor, poor, because, find, kind, mind, behind, child, children*, wild, climb, most, only, both, old, cold, gold, hold, told, every, everybody, even, great, break, steak, pretty, beautiful, after, fast, last, past, father, class, grass, pass, plant, path, bath, hour, move, prove, improve, sure, sugar, eye, could, should, would, who, whole, any, many, clothes, busy, people, water, again, half, money, Mr, Mrs, parents, Christmas – and/or others according to programme used.
*Note: children is not an exception to what has been taught so far but is included because of its relationship with child.

Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

In year 2, pupils move towards more word-specific knowledge of spelling, including homophones. The process of spelling should be emphasised: that is, that spelling involves segmenting spoken words into phonemes and then representing all the phonemes by graphemes in the right order. Pupils should do this both for single-syllable and multi-syllabic words.

At this stage children’s spelling should be phonically plausible, even if not always correct. Misspellings of words that pupils have been taught to spell should be corrected; other misspelt words can be used as an opportunity to teach pupils about alternative ways of representing those sounds.

Pupils should be encouraged to apply their knowledge of suffixes from their word reading to their spelling. They should also draw from and apply their growing knowledge of word and spelling structure, as well as their knowledge of root words.

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National Curriculum KS1 Y2: Handwriting

Statutory requirements

Pupils should be taught to:

Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils should revise and practise correct letter formation frequently. They should be taught to write with a joined style as soon as they can form letters securely with the correct orientation.

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National Curriculum KS1 Y2: Composition

Statutory requirements

Pupils should be taught to:

Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Reading and listening to whole books, not simply extracts, helps pupils to increase their vocabulary and grammatical knowledge, including their knowledge of the vocabulary and grammar of Standard English. These activities also help them to understand how different types of writing, including narratives, are structured. All these can be drawn on for their writing.

Pupils should understand, through being shown these, the skills and processes essential to writing: that is, thinking aloud as they collect ideas, drafting, and re-reading to check their meaning is clear.

Drama and role-play can contribute to the quality of pupils’ writing by providing opportunities for pupils to develop and order their ideas through playing roles and improvising scenes in various settings.

Pupils might draw on and use new vocabulary from their reading, their discussions about it (one-to-one and as a whole class) and from their wider experiences.

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National Curriculum KS1 Y2: Vocabulary, Grammar and Punctuation

Statutory requirements

Pupils should be taught to:

Detail of content to be introduced
Word Formation of nouns using suffixes such as –ness, –er and by compounding [for example, whiteboard, superman].
Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as –ful, –less.
Use of the suffixes –er, –est in adjectives and the use of –ly in Standard English to turn adjectives into adverbs.
Sentence Subordination (using when, if, that, because) and coordination (using or, and, but).
Expanded noun phrases for description and specification [for example, the blue butterfly, plain flour, the man in the moon].
How the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function as a statement, question, exclamation or command.
Text Correct choice and consistent use of present tense and past tense throughout writing.
Use of the progressive form of verbs in the present and past tense to mark actions in progress [for example, she is drumming, he was shouting].
Punctuation Use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences.
Commas to separate items in a list.
Apostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling and to mark singular possession in nouns [for example, the girl’s name].
Terminology for pupils noun, noun phrase, statement, question, exclamation, command, compound, suffix, adjective, adverb, verb, tense (past, present), apostrophe, comma.

Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

The terms for discussing language should be embedded for pupils in the course of discussing their writing with them. Their attention should be drawn to the technical terms they need to learn.

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