Consider the examples below. What do the highlighted phrases add to the meanings?
- He stroked the dog. [W2F-018 #175]
- They carried mugs of beer. [W2F-018 #140]
These phrases tell us who or what is being 'verbed', i.e. who is undergoing the action denoted by the verbs, in these situations: the dog is stroked, the mugs of beer are carried. Without these phrases, our examples would be incomplete.